American Ways

Learning from America’s Success 

(The American Ways–US History and Culture)–Fall 2013 & Spring 2014

Instructor: Mr. Michael Krigline, MA        Xiamen University,  Economics DeptAmerican Ways 3rd ed cover

Click “refresh” (刷新) in your browser to upload the most recent version of this page; I often change things before quiz/exam time.

Primary Textbook:American Ways (美国文化背景); By Dateman, Maryanne Kearny; Crandall, Joann; ISBN 978-7-5062-7898-0; Longman (北京: 世界图书出版公司); Pearson Education, Inc. 2005.

Vocabulary and Key Topics (to help with exam review)

Also be sure you understand basic English abbreviations and punctuation marks.

SA=things to study, which may be a “Short Answer” (or True/False, Fill in the Blank, etc) question on the quiz/exam.
  • *Culture (sociological definition): the way of life of a group of people, developed over time and passed down from generation to generation
  • *Culture (anthropological definition): a set of ideals, values, and standards of behavior…that make the actions of individuals intelligible to the group (Edward T Hall)American Ways 3rd ed-Chinese

Click below to get PDF files that took information and warm-up questions from the PPTs. The information below might also help you know how to study most effectively.

IMPORTANT: Click here to see a “preview” of your exam. Especially notice the English instructions and examples. Don’t be afraid to ask me to explain unclear “instructions” before class.

As I said in class, be sure to look at all the warm up questions and all three “opening quotes” (know the key/AWL words, and the quote’s meaning)

Fall Term

FALL MIDTERM STUDY HINTS:

Key Names. (There may be more.) We’ve talked about or quoted several people so far. If you can’t tell your partner who these people are, help each other find information about them in our textbook or materials

  • Sam Wilson
  • Edward T Hall
  • Israel Zangwill
  • Pres George W Bush
  • Tiger Woods
  • President Obama
  • Alexis de Tocqueville
  • John Zobgy
  • Pres Abraham Lincoln
  • Pres James Madison
  • Frederick Jackson Turner
  • Pres Ronald Reagan
  • Daniel Boone
  • Ellen Goodman (p 87)
  • Daniel Christie
  • Shannon Christie
  • Joseph Donelly
  • Steven Chase
  • Mike Kelly

If you don’t know the following words in English, I highly recommend that you learn them quickly! [arrogant, ambitious, spoiled, alcoholic] Also know abbreviations like e.g., esp., sth, sb, etc.

The midterm exam will cover ONLY chapters 1, 2, 4, Uncle Sam, lectures, and the movie Far and Away (not chapter 5 or 8). It is 4 pages long.

On exam day, we’ll watch a documentary (either before or after you take the test). Some of the vocabulary for the film WILL be on the exam,
so preview the study guide at: http://www.krigline.com.cn/lostworlds.htm

As I’ve said: here’s what to study: vocabulary; “testable” points I mention in class; “warm up” questions; homework.

Don’t forget that your “homework” includes the requirement that you talk to your partner for 15 minutes outside of class (in English). [It is OK to use “break” time to do this homework!!]

Because there were so many “content” questions (7 T/F; 10 multiple choice; etc.), I didn’t have much room for “simple” vocabulary (7 synonyms; 15 matching). But there are also sentences with 20 blanks to fill with vocabulary terms (normally from a list). There are about 7 items about “Far and Away” (mostly about people). As I said in chapter one, be sure you know “the big six” (basic American values).

Finally, “don’t worry”! It is just a test, not the focus of your life. Study what I taught you; review the homework and vocabulary that you have been working on for many weeks; get a good night’s sleep before the test. You’ll do fine! And even if you don’t, it will teach you how to prepare for the final exam!

FALL FINAL EXAM STUDY HINTS:

You’ll start with six “context clue” questions. Be sure you know what italics means.

You need to write down 15 synonyms, and at 1 point each that is 15% of the grade—SO LEARN all of the synonyms! You must give the word listed in our vocabulary.

Be sure you understand the “opening quote” from each chapter, and the vocabulary terms in each one (as on the midterm exam).

There are exercises with another 50 or so vocabulary terms, including the “fill in the blank” sections from the Midterm exam (as expected).

Know the difference between the concepts of melting pot, salad bowl and mosaic (p 166 and 173).

The test’s descriptions of characters in Far and Away and Finding Forrester are a little tricky, so read them carefully! There are also many other questions about these films (they fill about a page in total, and many are based on the homework questions you submitted; review our “warm ups” and the list of questions we discussed after watching Forrester).

Several things are from the last chapter (Education), so I’d advise you to read the whole thing again; especially be familiar with “The Educational Ladder,” “The Increasing Responsibilities of Public Schools” and “Multicultural Education.”

Other important terms/ideas include: Affirmative Action, “the big six,” the Civil Rights movement and leaders, the digital divide, Ebonics, E Pluribus Unum, filial piety, foul shots, fragmentation, plagiarism, political correctness, sports in America, the roots of Thanksgiving, Roraima, WASP/WEMP and “warm up” exercises from chapter 5 and the writing chapter.

Be sure you understand the examples on the “preview” because many have been dropped from the test.

The test is only 8 pages long, so I’ve had to leave out many important concepts, but I hope you will learn a lot as you review what we have talked about.

Some of the names we have talked about (PLUS the ones listed above, studied before the Midterm Exam)

  • Max Lerner (Important!)
  • Ben Wattenberg
  • John Logan
  • Prof. David Potter
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson
  • Martin Luther King, Jr
  • Malcolm X
  • Jesse Jackson
  • General Colin Powell
  • Condoleezza Rice
  • Justice John Marshall Harlan (p 196)
  • Justice Sandra Day O’Connor (p 198)

Warm Ups: (fall semester)

Chapter 1
What is the main idea of the opening words of the US Declaration of Independence (i.e., of the main quote on page 25)? Rights come from God, not any government, so no one should be allowed to take them away.

Chapter 2
1. What is the difference between “equality of opportunity” and “equality”?
2. What was the “most compelling reason” for so many immigrants to move to America?
3. What was the point of our discussion about these three wealthy men?

Chapter 4
Why do we romanticize these historical periods?
(Maybe to reinforce traditional values; or for vicarious adventure, compared to our “boring” lives?)

Far and Away
Joseph had 5-6 “jobs”; what were they?
1. farmer (in Ireland), 2. serving boy/body guard (on ship), 3. chicken factory worker, 4. boxer, 5. railroad worker, 6? farmer (on his own land)

Chapter 5
(This was a “fill in the blank” exercise on screen) In the 1700s and 1800s, Americans thought of themselves as producers, but the introduction of advertising (radio in the 1920s, and TV in the 1950s) helped to make the US a society of consumers. While “sponsors/ads” sometimes improve the content of programs or change behavior (for the better), most ads aim to get people to consume more and more.

Chapter 8a
What do WASP and WEMP mean? What’s the difference?
–WASP=White, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant
–Better?: WEMP=Western European, English-speaking, middle-class, Protestant (Mr. Krigline made this one up!)
–In what ways did the “non-Protestant/non-Western European” newcomers “threaten” American values: (See page 167 if needed)
—-Poor people might have a spirit of dependence and “looking for help” instead of self-reliance and hard work
—-Ward bosses were often corrupt, undermining the values of honesty, reward for effort, and competition (for political office)
—-Protestants valued freedom (including freedom to worship in many ways), which other religions often didn’t value

Chapter 8b
–Who are John Logan and Ben Wattenberg?
–Logan (sociologist; 2000 census): “as segregated a nation as it has ever been” (expects it to continue)
–becoming the first universal nation; one government, great diversity, continued influence and appeal
–Is America mostly a melting pot, salad bowl or mosaic? Answer with 1 or 2 grammatically correct answers.

Thanksgiving
1. Why did the pilgrims want to go to America?
to get away from religious persecution
2. How long did the trip across the ocean take? What year was that? 65 days; 1620
3. Give examples of “hardship” the pilgrims faced. rough ocean, long trip, crowded ship (101 in 33×7), broken beam, no suitable land, no nearby Indians, half died within a year, lack of food and medicine

Writing-1
1. Define “implication” and say why we said it was important to academic writing.
implication: [c] “something you believe to be demonstrated by a particular situation or set of facts.” A good implication shows how your topic is relevant, so it is a great way to end an academic paragraph or essay.
2. Define “topic sentence”; what should it do and what shouldn’t it have?
topic sentence: an interesting sentence that gets the reader’s attention and introduces the topic of a paragraph; it should give the reader an outline of the paragraph’s main support points (not vague or colloquial expressions)

Writing-2
(This was a “fill in the blank” exercise on the screen) 1. If a grader can’t “circle” ALL of the points in your outline AND “circle” them in your topic sentence, then you didn’t do a good job when writing the first sentence of a “body” paragraph.
2. A topic sentence should have ONE main idea, so it is best to avoid using “AND plus an unrelated second verb” in topic sentences.
3. A grader wants to find the main idea in each of your topic sentences, written or represented in your thesis statement.

Finding Forrester
1. What is Ebonics?
2. What does “cussing” mean, and why is it in this film?
Note: On April 28, 2009, the US Supreme Court agreed that broadcast TV/radio cannot allow listeners to hear the “F-word” and “S-word” (and similar forms of cussing). Misuse leads to fines.

Finding Forrester
1. What is plagiarism?
2. To Forrester and Jamal, what is a “soup question”? (a relevant question; a question that gives answers you can use; NOT a personal questions)
3. Ask your T/F or multiple choice question(s) to another pair.

Chapter 9
1. What does our textbook mean by “The Educational Ladder”, which ideals does it reflect, and how is one of those values in conflict with the educational system? (individual success based on equality of opportunity and hard work—“working your way to the top”; “equality of opportunity” vs elitist private schools and tax funding; p192-3)
2. What are two reasons for why XMU adopted more western practices regarding those who “fail a course”? (If you have to retake a class, not just an exam, you’ll be more motivated to “pass” the first time, and you’ll be more likely to actually learn the subject if you have to take it again.)
3. Why do 10-13% of American children go to private or “home” schools? (religious education, safety concerns, more individual attention yields higher academic performance)
4. What do many students do to help deal with the high college expenses? (work part time; attend class part time for 5-6 years; attend cheaper community colleges; take classes through distance learning)

 

For the Spring Midterm Exam

PDF for Midterm Exam notes, spring 2014, XMU:

American Ways-Midterm notes-sp14-pdf

(Just click on this link, and follow instructions. You might have to wait a moment. You should see the PDF file on your computer; then you can “save” it.)

As I said in class, be sure to look at all the warm up questions and all three “opening quotes” (know the key/AWL words, and the quote’s meaning)

“Q” pages for the Midterm Exam: 119*, 122, 124, 127, 128, 141, 147, 151, 152, 219, 225*, 228.

Don’t forget to study all of the vocabulary for “The Flaw,” and the definitions above for “culture” (def: ideas, beliefs, and customs of a group of people).

MAJOR concepts for the Midterm (SA): p 119, major values; p 225, vacation and leisure; branches of government; what is the American Dream; reasons why Americans are overweight. You should also know that EFL means English as a Foreign Language. NAMES to know: mostly from p 228 and 127-8 (plus Billy Graham, Toqueville, maybe a few others)

The Midterm test is 5 pages, and you can leave when you finish.

For the Spring Final Exam

PDF for Final Exam notes, spring 2014, XMU:

American Ways-Final notes-sp14-pdf

PDF of Final Review Questions (find answers in other PDF files or your notes):

XMU_AmWays_Final-review-questions_5-14pdf

(Just click on the above links, and follow instructions. You might have to wait a moment. You should see the PDF file on your computer; then you can “save” it.)

“Q” pages for the Final Exam: 51, 53, 54, 56, 57, 242, 243, 248, 266, 269, 272, 273 (Plus the exercises I said to put a “Q” by; plus important names). After the midterm, we covered Chapters 3, 11 & 12, plus Easter, Unstoppable, and Traveling without Seeing/the Net.

MAJOR concepts for the Final (SA): Pay special attention to the introductory quotes in each chapter, the warm up questions and to anything that is blue in the PDF document.

Some of the key names I found marked in my book (there may be more):

  • Chapter 3: Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Carnegie, John D Rockefeller, Wade Clark Roof
  • Chapter 11: Max Lerner, Judith Wallerstein, Dr. Benjamin Spock, Letha & John Scanzoni, Daniel Yankelovich
  • Chapter 12: Alvin Toffler, John Zogby, Ben Wattenberg, Michael Barone, Mortimer Zuckerman, John Kenneth White, George Washington
  • Traveling without Seeing: Jonathan Martin, Frank Bruni

The Final Exam is 10 pages, and you can leave when you finish.

Chapter-by-chapter vocabulary

chapter; ^ AWL terms (Academic Word List–as discussed in class); * key terms; ** key terms we’ve had before; = one-word synonyms (be sure you know how to spell both words)

Most of these definitions came from the textbook; see “use policy” regarding other definitions.

Fall term

Uncle Sam article:

  • (Sam) * agriculture: the practice, science or process of growing food
  • (Sam) * cartoon (political): a humorous drawing (e.g., in a newspaper), often about politics or everyday life
  • (Sam) * to downsize: to make a workforce smaller, esp. to save money
  • (Sam) folklore: the traditional beliefs or stories told by a group of people (often to explain customs or practices)
  • (Sam) * to make sth official: to let others know publicly or in some legal way (i.e., sth that used to be secret or informal)
  • (Sam) * manufacturing: the practice or process of making things (esp. in factories or on a large scale)
  • (Sam) * multicultural: involving or including people or ideas from many different countries, races, or religions
  • (Sam) * the origin of sth: where sth came from; the place or situation in which sth began
  • (Sam) * to recruit: to look for people to join your company, school, army, etc.
  • (Sam) revolution: time when people change a political system by mass demonstrations, war, or other force
  • (Sam) * a service economy: when more workers provide a service instead of a product (e.g., cooking, teaching, consulting, banking)
  • (Sam) * slogan: a short phrase (also called a catchphrase) that is easy to remember and is used in advertisements, or by politicians, organizations, etc
  • (Sam) * voluntarily: by choice; because you want to (adv)

From the textbook

  • 1 * abbreviation: a short form of a word, expression, title, name, and so forth (examples: etc., i.e., Dr., NBA)
  • 1 ^ to affect: to produce a change, result, deep emotion
  • 1 * Alexis de Tocqueville: French sociologist who wrote the influential book Democracy in America in 1831
  • 1 ^ to approach: to come near
  • 1 ^ aspect: one part of an idea that has many parts
  • 1 * assimilated: became part of a country or group and were accepted by other people in it
  • 1 bi-: prefix meaning two
  • 1 biculturalism: relating to two distinct cultures or places
  • 1 bilingualism: the ability to speak two languages equally well
  • 1 ^ category: group of things that all have the same qualities
  • 1 * census: an official population count
  • 1 Cinco de Mayo: a traditional Mexican holiday that honors the Mexican army’s victory over an invading French force at Puebla, Mexico in 1862
  • 1 ^ * classic: considered important, with a value that lasts for a long time; books, films, clothes, etc, that never “go out of style”
  • 1 ^ * community: the people who share an area, town, profession, interest, heritage, etc.
  • 1 ^ * concept = idea; an idea of how sth should be done
  • 1 ^ to constitute: a “part” of sth that makes us think of the whole/conclusion (e.g., your sister as part of your family, or a fact as part of a convincing argument)
  • 1 ^ * context: setting; whatever comes before and after sth, which often helps us understand it
  • 1 ^ * to contribute = to give
  • 1 ^ to convince: to make someone think something is true
  • 1 ^ * to create: to make, invent or design sth original
  • 1 crucible: a container in which substances are heated to a very high level (such as to mix different metals)
  • 1 * cultural pluralism: the principle that people of different races, religions, and political beliefs can live together peacefully in the same society
  • 1 ^ * culture: ideas, beliefs, and customs of a group of people
  • 1 ^ * data: information or facts
  • 1 ^ debate: a discussion of different opinions
  • 1 ^ * decade: a period of ten years
  • 1 descent: family origins, especially in relation to the country where one’s family came from
  • 1 ^ * distinct: clearly different or separate
  • 1 ^ * diverse: made up of distinct and different parts, characteristics, etc.
  • 1 ^ * to dominate: to control due to power, authority, overwhelming influence, etc.
  • 1 effect: a result or change; the way sb/sth changes an event, action, person, etc.
  • 1 em-: prefix meaning out of
  • 1 ^ to emerge: to come out
  • 1 to emigrate: to permanently leave one’s country
  • 1 ^ to establish: to start something that will continue
  • 1 ^ * to estimate: to judge by calculating and guessing
  • 1 ^ * ethnic: [adj] related to race or nationality
  • 1 ^ to exclude: to leave out on purpose
  • 1 ^ * factor: one of several things that influence or cause a result
  • 1 * generalization: a broad statement about people or situations (that is not often completely true)
  • 1 * heritage: traditional beliefs, values, and customs of a family, country or society
  • 1 ^ * hypothesis: an explanation not yet proven
  • 1 ^ to identify: to recognize or discover sb/sth correctly
  • 1 * identity: the qualities a group of people have that make them different from other people
  • 1 il-: prefix meaning not
  • 1 illegal: not legal
  • 1 im-: prefix meaning into
  • 1 ^ * to immigrate: to permanently move into a new country
  • 1 ^ * incidentally: by the way
  • 1 industrialized: characterized by producing/making/mining things (as opposed to growing/raising food)
  • 1 ^ institute: an organization focused on a particular purpose (e.g., research, technical education, social work)
  • 1 ^ * institutions: large organizations, especially ones dedicated to public service; (when singular, “institution” can also refer to an established social system)
  • 1 inter-: prefix meaning between
  • 1 * interracial: between or by combining people of different races (e.g., __ harmony/marriage/sports/education)
  • 1 ^ * job = work
  • 1 ^ legal: related to what is “right” or “OK” according to law or the courts
  • 1 ^ * license: an official document that gives you permission to do sth (drive a car, marry, etc)
  • 1 ^ * to maintain: to make sth continue in the same way (e.g., by regulating or fixing it)
  • 1 ^ * major = serious; more important than other things
  • 1 ^ * minor: not serious; less important than other things
  • 1 * minority: a group of people whose race is different from that of most people in a country
  • 1 ^ * to motivate: to increase sb’s interest or excitement, resulting in action, participation, etc.
  • 1 ^ motive: the reason for doing something or behaving in a certain way
  • 1 multi-: prefix meaning many
  • 1 ** multicultural: involving or including people or ideas from many different countries, races, or religions
  • 1 ^ * neutral = impartial; not supporting one side or the other
  • 1 neutral observer: someone who observes without expressing an opinion
  • 1 ^ * participants: people who are taking part in an activity
  • 1 ^ to participate in: to take part, or be able to share in an activity
  • 1 ^ percent: a portion of 100
  • 1 ^ period: the punctuation mark at the end of an English sentence; an interval of time
  • 1 * personal space: the distance you like to keep between yourself and others (depending on your relationship)
  • 1 * politically correct (PC): language or behavior carefully chosen not to offend or insult anyone (esp., in keeping with ideals currently promoted in the American media)
  • 1 * poll: a survey that asks many people the same question to find out general opinions about sth
  • 1 pollsters: people trained to create and conduct opinion polls
  • 1 ^ to process: to deal with an official document, request, etc., in the usual way (often through a series of steps)
  • 1 * quota: a limit on the number allowed
  • 1 ^ * resource: something useful but normally limited (i.e., some have it, but others don’t have as much)
  • 1 reunifications: the joining of the parts of something together again
  • 1 ^ * to reveal: to show sth that was hidden
  • 1 ^ * role = part (that someone plays)
  • 1 * to scan: to quickly look through text to find a particular piece of information (date, time, name, fact, etc.)
  • 1 ^ * significant: important or influential (esp., in relation to future events)
  • 1 ^ * specific = particular; something particular the reader/listener knows about; not general
  • 1 ^ to specify: to say sth in a clear, detailed way
  • 1 ^ to survive: to continue (to live) in spite of difficulties
  • 1 ^ text: written material, esp. in a book/magazine
  • 1 ^ * tradition: a belief, custom, or way of doing something that has existed for a long time; [uncountable] all of these beliefs, customs, etc., in general. (传统)
  • 1 ^ * unique: being the only one of its kind; one of a kind
  • 1 * URL: a web address (abbreviation for uniform resource locator)
  • 1 ^ to vary: to be different
  • 1 ^ * virtual: seen or created on a computer instead of in the real world; almost always, almost exactly so
  • 1 ^ visible: able to be seen
  • 1 working: employed, or not broken
  • 2 * abundant = plentiful
  • 2 ^ to accumulate: to gradually get more and more money, possessions, or knowledge over a period of time
  • 2 ^ * to achieve: to succeed in getting the results you wanted; to reach (goals, success, etc)
  • 2 ^ * to acquire: to get something, such as by buying, reading, or being near it
  • 2 ^ adult: a fully grown person or animal
  • 2 are apt to: have a natural tendency to do something
  • 2 aristocrats: people who belong to the highest social class
  • 2 ^ to attach: to connect two things in a strong way; to add one object to another
  • 2 ^ * authority: the power you have because of your official position
  • 2 ^ * benefit: something that gives advantages or improves life in some way
  • 2 ^ * challenge: sth that tests strength, skill, or ability; sth difficult to accomplish or win
  • 2 * charity: an organization that gives money, goods, or help to people who are poor, sick, etc.
  • 2 ^ ** concept = idea; an idea of how sth should be done
  • 2 ^ * constant = never-ending; all the time or always the same
  • 2 ^ * constitution: a set of basic laws and principles that a democratic country is governed by
  • 2 ^ ** context: setting; whatever comes before and after sth, which often helps us understand it
  • 2 ^ * to convert: to change from one form, system, or purpose to a different one
  • 2 ^ ** decade: a period of ten years
  • 2 ^ decline = decrease (in quality, importance, numbers, etc.)
  • 2 defied: refused to obey someone or do what was expected
  • 2 ^ to define: to describe accurately; to talk about the limits or qualities that make sth different
  • 2 ^ to design: to create, plan, or develop sth for a specific purpose
  • 2 destiny: a sense that things should and will happen in the future, or the mysterious power that makes them happen
  • 2 ^ * to diminish = to lessen; to become smaller or less important
  • 2 ^ * the economy: the system related to the way goods and services are made, distributed and used; a country’s system of production, distribution and consumption of money, things and services
  • 2 ^ * to eliminate: to get rid of sth completely
  • 2 ^ * emphasis: additional importance
  • 2 * endowed = given (a good quality)
  • 2 ^ energy: the physical and mental strength that makes you able to be active
  • 2 ^ enormous: extremely large in size or amount
  • 2 ^ to ensure = to guarantee; to make certain something will happen properly
  • 2 ^ * ethic: a general idea or set of moral beliefs that influences people’s behavior and attitudes
  • 2 ^ * ethical: relating to principles of what is right and wrong
  • 2 ^ eventual: in the end; happening at the end of a lot of time, effort, etc.
  • 2 ^ * evident = obvious; easily noticed or understood
  • 2 * facet: one of several parts of someone’s character or a situation
  • 2 ^ * to finance: to provide a lot of money so sb can buy sth (like a house or computer); the people or company you finance must pay you back over a period of time, and must pay you a little extra (called “interest” or “financing costs”) for loaning them this money.
  • 2 ^ * financial: relating to money
  • 2 foundation: a basic idea or principle
  • 2 ^ fundamental: of central and underlying importance
  • 2 ^ * generation: people of the same age, or the period of time between someone’s birth and the birth of his/her children (three generations would include you, your father, and your grandfather)
  • 2 ^ * global = international; relating to the whole world
  • 2 * hereditary: can be passed from an older to a younger person in the same family
  • 2 inalienable: that cannot be taken away from you; intrinsically yours, and by right unable to be taken away or transferred to another
  • 2 ^ * individual: one person, considered separately from the group
  • 2 ^ intelligence: the ability to understand or apply what one learns; military information about enemies
  • 2 ^ * to issue: to officially give or offer for sale (information, warnings, documents, reports, currency, etc.)
  • 2 ^ labor: hard work; work using physical effort
  • 2 ^ ** to maintain: to make sth continue in the same way (e.g., by regulating or fixing it)
  • 2 * materialistic: concerned mainly with money and tangible things, rather than with charity, morality, and intangible things
  • 2 ^ * natural resources: a country’s land, minerals, or natural energy that can be used to increase its wealth
  • 2 ^ * nevertheless: in spite of (despite) sth just mentioned (where “what was mentioned” might seem to make your next point hard to accept)
  • 2 * peers: people who are the same age or have the same type of job or rank
  • 2 ^ to perceive: to see or understand in a particular way
  • 2 * plight: a bad, serious, or sad condition or situation
  • 2 * prestige: the respect and importance that a person, organization, or profession has
  • 2 * profound: important and having a strong influence or effect
  • 2 ^ * to promote: to help sth or sb advance and be successful
  • 2 ^ * to pursue: to continue to try to do/complete sth or follow sth/sb (often in spite of difficulties)
  • 2 pursuit: a determined action to achieve or get sth (pursuits can also refer to one’s hobbies)
  • 2 ^ to reject: to choose not to accept a thing/person/idea
  • 2 ^ * reliant: being dependent on someone
  • 2 ^ * to rely on = to depend on
  • 2 ^ * to seek = to look (with effort)
  • 2 self-evident: easily noticed or understood; obvious
  • 2 ^ to shift: to move from one place or position to another
  • 2 ** slogan: a short phrase (also called a catchphrase) that is easy to remember and is used in advertisements, or by politicians, organizations, etc
  • 2 ^ * status: social or professional rank or position in relation to others
  • 2 ^ * substitute = replacement; a person/thing you can use when the normal one is not available
  • 2 ^ * survey: a group of questions that are asked to many people in order to discover general opinions)
  • 2 * tangible = concrete; able to be touched
  • 2 ^ * theme: main subjects or ideas in a piece of writing, speech, or movie
  • 2 ^ * uniform: the same; a standardized set of clothes for fellow students, police officers, soldiers, etc.
  • 2 ^ ** unique: being the only one of its kind; one of a kind
  • 2 ^ * welfare: money paid by the government to people who are very poor, sick, not working, etc
  • (We’ll look at chapter 3 in the spring)
  • 4 ^ * to access: to legally be allowed to get/enjoy sth (your grades, an entrance, a school, etc.)
  • 4 ^ * adequate: well enough for a particular purpose
  • 4 ^ area: a particular part of a country or city; a particular subject or range of activities
  • 4 ^ to automate: to start using a machine to do something (often so a person doesn’t need to do it)
  • 4 * automatic: designed to operate by itself; done without thinking about an action
  • 4 ^ * aware: realizing that a problem exists; understanding what is happening
  • 4 ^ * capable: having the skills needed to do sth
  • 4 ^ * circumstances = conditions; reasons that affect a situation, action, event, etc.
  • 4 ^ civil: related to the people, or laws that affect private affairs (e.g., property or business, not crime)
  • 4 ^ ** classic: considered important, with a value that lasts for a long time; books, films, clothes, etc, that never “go out of style”
  • 4 clumsy gait: walking in an awkward way
  • 4 ^ * complex = complicated; difficult to understand because it involves many related parts
  • 4 ^ to confine: to keep someone in a place that they cannot leave
  • 4 ^ to consist: to be made of a number of things
  • 4 ^ * to construct: to build sth large
  • 4 ^ * controversy = argument; a disagreement because people have strong but different opinions on the subject
  • 4 ^ * to cooperate: to work with sb to achieve sth
  • 4 ^ * to demonstrate = to show; to show how sth works or how sth is true
  • 4 ^ * to deny: to say that sth is not true
  • 4 desensitized: made emotionally insensitive
  • 4 ^ to detect = to notice (esp sth others don’t see)
  • 4 * detective: sb paid to discover information (many work as police officers, though “private detectives” like Sherlock Holmes [福尔摩斯] work independently)
  • 4 ^ to enable: to make it possible for sth to happen
  • 4 erect: in an upright position; standing tall and proud
  • 4 ^ ** evident = obvious; easily noticed or understood
  • 4 exemplified: was a very typical example of sth
  • 4 to fascinate: to interest greatly
  • 4 ^ * feature: sth you notice because it seems interesting
  • 4 ^ * final = last (in a series)
  • 4 fistfights: fights using bare hands with the fingers curled in toward the palm
  • 4 ^ * to guarantee: to legally promise that something will be done, fixed, or will otherwise happen
  • 4 * to hail = to praise; to describe sb as being very good
  • 4 harsh: difficult; severe
  • 4 * idealized: remembered in a way that made sth/sb seem much better than it really was
  • 4 ^ image: the way others see you; sth that intentionally looks like sth else (e.g., the face on a coin)
  • 4 ^ * impact = effect, esp the strong effect sth has on sth else
  • 4 item: a single thing in a set, group, or list
  • 4 * legacy: a situation that exists as a result of things that happened at an earlier time
  • 4 ^ * to legislate: to pass a law about sth
  • 4 * literally: according to the most basic or original meaning of a word or expression
  • 4 * macho: very masculine [a 男子汉is considered macho]
  • 4 ^ * normal = usual; commonly used
  • 4 nostalgic: feeling or expression a slight sadness when remembering happy events or experiences from the past
  • 4 * obstacles: things that make it difficult for sb to succeed
  • 4 * optimism: a tendency to be positive or hopeful
  • 4 * pessimism: a tendency to be negative or doubtful
  • 4 ^ * phase: one of the stages of a process
  • 4 ^ * physical: related to the body or personal touch (vs the mind)
  • 4 ^ portion = part (of a whole)
  • 4 ^ * principal = main (i.e., most important)
  • 4 prowess: great skill at doing sth; great bravery
  • 4 ^ * to react: to act in response
  • 4 ^ * region: a fairly large area of a state
  • 4 ^ * to reinforce: to give strength or support to (a building, idea, opinion, etc)
  • 4 ^ ** to reveal: to show sth that was hidden
  • 4 romanticized: talked or thought about things in a way that made them seem more attractive than they really were
  • 4 rugged: rough; tough
  • 4 ^ * to secure: to get sth (a contract, a deal, a place in history, etc) that will last a long time, esp. after a lot of effort
  • 4 * the Smithsonian Institution: a group of world-class museums and scientific institutes in Washington, DC; America’s most honored “national museums”
  • 4 ^ source: place of origin
  • 4 * survivor: sb who is still alive after almost being killed
  • 4 ^ task: an assigned job
  • 4 * urbanized: characterized by city life (houses, factories, stores), not rural life
  • 4 ^ * version: a revised copy or different description of something (“The latest version of this software doesn’t work with older operating systems.” “I heard a different version of that story.”)
  • 5 ^ * to accompany: to go with; to play music to help sb (“Shannon asked Joseph to accompany her across the ocean–as a servant!” “Mom accompanied me on the train.” “Molly will accompany Tim on the piano as he sings.”)
  • 5 ^ * to adapt: to change sth to help it fit a different purpose; “In general, people and animals adapt, while things are adjusted.”
  • 5 ^ * to adjust: to change sth (often by small amounts) to improve it or restore it to its original working condition; “He adjusted the watch to keep better time.”
  • 5 ^ * to assemble: to put things/people together to make a “whole” (group, machine, etc)
  • 5 ^ available: easy to get
  • 5 to censor: to examine books, movies, or letters to remove anything that is offensive or unacceptable
  • 5 ^ * century: period of 100 years
  • 5 to cleanse: to make something completely clean
  • 5 * commercial: [n] an advertisement on TV or radio; [adj] relating to profit from business or trade (can also mean “for industrial use”)
  • 5 ^ * to communicate: to exchange information in an understandable way
  • 5 ^ to compute: to determine an answer by math or by computer
  • 5 * computer literacy: being able to operate a computer and use the internet
  • 5 ^ * to conclude: to decide, based on convincing information; to successfully finish
  • 5 ^ conflict: a fight or argument
  • 5 * connotation: the feeling or idea suggested by a word
  • 5 ^ ** to construct: to build sth large
  • 5 ^ to consume: to eat/use up (so that it is gone)
  • 5 * decency: basic accepted behavior, especially moral and sexual behavior
  • 5 ^ ** declining: going down
  • 5 deodorants: substance that you put on the skin under your arms to stop unpleasant odors
  • 5 ^ device: a machine, tool or method, used for a special job or effect
  • 5 diabetes: a disease in which there is too sugar in the blood
  • 5 * dilemma: a situation in which you have to make a difficult choice between two or more actions
  • 5 donation: gift, esp to a charity
  • 5 ^ * to edit: to remove/replace mistakes or unnecessary parts from an article, speech, play, etc.
  • 5 * entry-level job: a first job for a person entering the job market, such as a janitor, a dishwasher in a restaurant, or a day laborer on a construction job
  • 5 ^ * environment: the conditions around you that affect you, esp. natural things like noisy, water and air.
  • 5 ^ * expanding: becoming larger
  • 5 ^ * expert: someone who knows a lot about something
  • 5 ^ * to export: to send sth to another part of the world (or to a different computer program!); “They export software that can export jpg files as svg files.”
  • 5 ^ * fee: money paid (e.g. to a professional) for a service or for permission to do sth; “Disneyland charges a big fee for park entrance, in part because they must pay high insurance fees.”
  • 5 fragment: an incomplete piece or a piece that has broken off of something
  • 5 * fragmented: broken up (the connotation is “no longer whole” or “no longer” as functional/useful as it once was”)
  • 5 ^ * fund: money available for a specific reason
  • 5 * garbage: trash, but esp left-over (smelly) food that has been thrown away
  • 5 ^ * goods = products
  • 5 ^ * to grant = to give
  • 5 ^ * grant: a large gift, such as land or a scholarship
  • 5 ^ * guaranteed: certain to happen (because of a promise, force of nature, etc)
  • 5 ^ * incentive = encouragement; sth that encourages sb to work hard to accomplish a goal
  • 5 ^ * income: the money that you earn from your work or that you receive from investments, the government, etc
  • 5 ^ * to invest: to spend money in the hope of great reward (e.g., a financial “return” or improved social condition) “Investing in public housing helps the poor.” “He invested in stock but lost a lot of money.”
  • 5 leisurely: without hurrying (leisure time is time when one is free from employment and duties of any kind)
  • 5 ^ * the media: TV, radio, and newspapers
  • 5 ^ medical: related to the treatment of a disease or other health situation
  • 5 ^ to negate: to deny or nullify (i.e., keep sth from being effective or valid) “The chairman quickly negated resignation rumors.”
  • 5 * novelty: new, unusual and interesting; “Their ads took a novel approach, but the novelty soon wore off.”
  • 5 * obesity: the condition of being too heavy in a way that is dangerous to your health
  • 5 ^ * option = choice; sth different that could be done in a particular situation
  • 5 * paradox: a surprising or unlikely combination of opposing qualities, ideas, etc.; a seeming contradiction
  • 5 * plenty: enough, or more than enough
  • 5 ^ * positive = certain; good
  • 5 ^ potential: likely to develop in a certain/clear way
  • 5 ^ predict: use special insight to say what will happen before it happens, based on insight or a guess
  • 5 ^ professional: related to a job that needs special training or skill (and/or that pays well)
  • 5 * to recycle: to process trash so that the material it is made from can be used again (especially paper, plastic and glass) [adj: ‘recycled’ bottles]
  • 5 ^ * to regulate = to control (esp. by rules or laws)
  • 5 ^ * to relax: to rest (loosen muscles, become calm) after doing something intense or demanding; “After work, I like to relax by listening to music.”
  • 5 ^ to respond: to reply or react to sth said or done
  • 5 * to restrict = to limit
  • 5 ^ section: a part (of the whole)
  • 5 ^ site = place
  • 5 * to sponsor: to pay money in return for advertising; the person or organization that pays the money
  • 5 ^ * stress: mental, emotional or physical strain/tension (often about your work or personal life)
  • 5 ^ * subsidized: paid, in part, by sb else; partly paid for
  • 5 ^ subsidy: money given (often by the government) to support sth that is in the public interest; “If you give farmers a subsidy, they can sell food cheaper.”
  • 5 ^ * symbol (symbolized): represented an idea or quality
  • 5 ^ * technique = method; the skillful way sth is done
  • 5 ^ * technology: the techniques and machines (esp computers) used to help people or industry
  • 5 * trash = rubbish (BrE); things people throw away because they don’t want them or because they are broken
  • 5 ^ to undergo: to pass through a difficult experience, emotion, etc.
  • 5 * vice: a negative human personal quality, seen as bad or immoral (in varying degrees, from “bad habits” to immoral wickedness); “I know smoking is a vice, but I just can’t quit.”
  • 5 * virtue: a positive human personal quality, seen as morally good or righteous; “Patience is a virtue, but procrastination is a vice.”
  • 5 ^ widespread: existing or happening in many places or situations
  • (We’ll look at chapters 6 & 7 in the spring)
  • 8 to abolish: to officially end a law or system
  • 8 ^ to accommodate: to acknowledge and allow (e.g., a different opinion, a new team member, an unpopular change/need)
  • 8 * assassination: the murder of an important person
  • 8 ** assimilated: became part of a country or group and were accepted by other people in it
  • 8 ^ * bias: an opinion about whether something is good or bad that influences how you deal with it
  • 8 * civil rights: rights that every person in a country should have; in the US, these include the right to vote and to be treated fairly regardless of gender, race, or religion
  • 8 construction: working on new buildings
  • 8 * corrupt = dishonest
  • 8 ^ * despite: even though something else exists or is true
  • 8 ^ * discrimination: the practice of treating a person or a group differently in an unfair way
  • 8 ^ * documentation: official papers that are used to prove that something is true
  • 8 ^ ** to eliminate: to get rid of sth completely
  • 8 gulf: great difference and lack of understanding between two groups of people
  • 8 ^ * inclined: influenced toward a particular action or opinion
  • 8 * inspiring: encouraging people to achieve something great
  • 8 ^ to instruct = to teach
  • 8 ** legacy: a situation that exists as a result of things that happened at an earlier time
  • 8 to mingle: to meet and talk with a lot of different people socially
  • 8 mosaic: a picture made by fitting together small pieces of colored stones, glass, or paper
  • 8 to obliterate: to destroy something so that almost nothing remains
  • 8 ** paradox: a surprising or unlikely combination of opposing qualities, ideas, etc.; a seeming contradiction
  • 8 ^ phenomenon: something that is very unusual
  • 8 ^ a process: a normal or repeatable series of actions or steps
  • 8 ^ to prohibit: to ban; to say sth must not be done, seen, used, etc.
  • 8 * Protestant: a major branch of Christianity (started in the 1400s by Martin Luther in Germany); 新教
  • 8 ^ to reside = to live (at a place)
  • 8 ^ * residential: relating to homes (as opposed to businesses or factories)
  • 8 ^ * to retain = to keep
  • 8 * to segregate: to separate one group from others, esp because of race
  • 8 ^ * somewhat: more than a little, but not very
  • 8 * trickle: a movement of people or things, in very small numbers or amounts
  • 8 * victims: people who suffer bad treatment even though they have done nothing to deserve it
  • 9 ^ * academic: relating to education
  • 9 ^ ** to achieve: to succeed in getting the results you wanted; to reach (goals, success, etc)
  • 9 the advent of: the coming of; the arrival of sth/sb important (e.g., the computer age, airplanes, the Christian era)
  • 9 ^ annual: happening once a year
  • 9 burdens: difficult or worrisome things that you are responsible for
  • 9 charter schools: schools to which the state government has given money and special permission to operate but that are operated by parents, companies, etc, rather than by the public school system
  • 9 ^ concentration: large amount of something in one place
  • 9 ^ * core: the most important or central part
  • 9 ^ * criteria: established standards used to judge something
  • 9 elite: limited to wealthy people with a high social status
  • 9 * to erase: to completely remove/destroy the contents as if by wiping (so that the blackboard, hard disk, etc, can be used again)
  • 9 ^ * to evaluate: to consider something carefully
  • 9 * extracurricular: (adj, only before a noun) additional activities, clubs, sports, jobs, etc., that students do but that are not part of someone’s studies
  • 9 filed briefs: submitted legal documents to be considered by the court
  • 9 * freshman: the first year of high school or college (“What year are we? We’re freshmen.”)
  • 9 ^ * grade: a position or degree in a process (i.e., academic achievement, chemical purification); “The US school system has 12 grades.” “Grade A eggs taste better than cheap eggs.”
  • 9 ** identity: the qualities a group of people have that make them different from other people
  • 9 ^ ignorance: a lack of education or understanding
  • 9 * to ignore: to deliberately pay no attention to
  • 9 ^ to indicate: to show or point to
  • 9 ^ * indicator = sign
  • 9 ^ to integrate: to combine in an effective way
  • 9 junior: the third year of high school or college (“What year am I? I’m a junior.”)
  • 9 ^ * to justify = to explain; to prove sth to be just/right/valid
  • 9 * mandatory: something that must be done, especially because of a law or rule
  • 9 ^ mature: fully grown and sensible
  • 9 * means: a method or system
  • 9 ^ * method: a planned way of doing something
  • 9 * monetary: relating to money
  • 9 ^ * to obtain = to get (as a result of effort)
  • 9 ^ * perspective: way of thinking about something
  • 9 ^ * predominantly: mostly or mainly
  • 9 * prestigious: admired as one of the best and most important (people, organizations, professions, etc.)
  • 9 reaffirmed: formally stated an intention or belief again, especially as an answer to a question or doubt
  • 9 * to reflect = to show
  • 9 * to regard: to think about
  • 9 ** to retain = to keep
  • 9 ^ * sector: part, area or segment (esp business or trade)
  • 9 ^ * to select: to choose carefully
  • 9 senior: the fourth year of high school or college
  • 9 sophomore: the second year of high school or college
  • 9 ^ * technical: relating to practical knowledge or skills; referring to a specific subject or profession (“In technical school, he learned to fix smart phones.” “Adverb is a technical term for words that describe verbs.”)
  • 9 toast: the act of raising a glass and drinking to express thanks or good wishes [干杯]; a slice of bread that is intentionally “overcooked” in an oven [烤面包]
  • 9 ^ * to transform: to completely change the appearance or form of something
  • 9 * tuition: the money you pay for being taught at a school or college
  • 9 unfunded mandates: things that the government demands that school districts (businesses, etc.) do, although they do not give the money to meet the demand
  • 9 ^ * to violate: to disobey or do something against
  • 9 * vocational: training or advice relating to the skills needed to do a particular job
  • 9 vouchers: types of tickets that can be used instead of money for a particular purpose

Don’t forget to study the vocabulary for our films!

Spring semester

Ivy League article

  • (Ivy) * alumni = graduates (from a particular school)
  • (Ivy) * conservative: supporting political traditions (things that worked in the past); “too much government” is the problem (see chapter 3)
  • (Ivy) * credentials: documents or facts used to tell others the truth about your education, experience, identity, etc.
  • (Ivy) * endowment: funds given in the past (the interest is used to support a university, family, etc.)
  • (Ivy) * liberal: supporting political change; “more government” is the solution (see chapter 3)
  • (Ivy) * prestige: the respect and importance that a person, organization, or profession has
  • (Ivy) ** to recruit: to look for people to join your company, school, army, etc.

Public Colleges article

  • (Public) * democracy: a system of government in which voters select their leaders (in modern times, “voters” means “all citizens”; in the past, “voters” were more narrowly defined by gender, race, wealth, affiliation, or other criteria)
  • (Public) * distance education: individual instruction to students not physically present n a classroom (e.g., on line, correspondence, via special seminars)
  • (Public) ^ ** grant: a large gift, such as land or a scholarship
  • (Public) * modest: not great, not “showing off” (a modest tuition, musician, dress; opposite of great, expensive, boastful or sexy)
  • (Public) * sophisticated sth complicated/advanced, or sb having the experience/knowledge to understand such things (e.g., a sophisticated machine or voter)

From the textbook

  • 3 ^ ** to abandon: to permanently leave a particular idea/place/etc (often because it is unsafe, wrong, unusable, etc.)
  • 3 ^ * attitude: opinions, feelings, or beliefs about something
  • 3 ^ capacity: ability to do or produce something
  • 3 ^ * to cite: to mention something as an example or proof
  • 3 ^ consequently: as a result
  • 3 ** conservative: (this term means different things to different people, so find another word!) preferring law over opinion; not exact (but tending to underestimate); supporting political/social/religious traditions; “too much government” is the problem
  • 3 ^ * to contradict: to deny sth or express the opposite (opinion, fact, etc)
  • 3 ^ contrast: a difference between things that are compared
  • 3 ^ * devote: to choose to give time, money, attention, etc. to a person/cause/etc
  • 3 ^ to display: to put things in a place where people can see them
  • 3 ^ * dramatic: exciting and impressive (and perhaps somewhat mysterious)
  • 3 * Evangelicals: Christians who (1) believe that the Bible is a flawless revelation of God’s truth, and who (2) emphasize the need for personal faith in Jesus, leading to a transformed life; people who attend churches that have those beliefs (sometimes called “religious conservatives”)
  • 3 ^ function: the usual purpose of something
  • 3 ^ * to impose: to force people to accept (a rule, practice, tax, etc.)
  • 3 in league with: (generally a negative term) working together, often in a hidden or bad way
  • 3 kaleidoscope: a pattern, situation, or scene that is always changing and has many details or bright colors
  • 3 ** liberal: (this term means different things to different people, so find another word!) allowing multiple opinions; not exact (but tending to overestimate); supporting political/social/religious change; “more government” is the solution
  • 3 ^ * to occur = to happen
  • 3 ^ to orient: to design or direct (“You must orient your ad to appeal to certain people.”); to make sb familiar with his/her surroundings (“This note will help me get oriented to my new schedule.”); to get sth to face in a certain direction
  • 3 * persecution: cruel or unfair treatment, especially because of religious or political beliefs
  • 3 ^ to persist: to continue doing something, even though it is difficult
  • 3 ^ philosophy: a set of beliefs about how people should live
  • 3 ^ previous: happening or existing before now
  • 3 ^ primary: most important or earliest
  • 3 * to proclaim: to say publicly or officially that something is true
  • 3 * Protestant: a major branch of Christianity (started in the 1400s by Martin Luther in Germany); 新教
  • 3 ^ * to require: to need; indicates sth that you must do according to law/rules/etc
  • 3 ^ * research: serious study of a subject, to find information, explain sth, discover opinions, etc. (NOTE: “research” is not countable; it is often used with the verbs like “conduct research” or “do research”)
  • 3 ^ * similar = alike
  • 3 * sins: [technical] according to the Bible, sin is every human act that falls short of the perfection God intended for humans; all sin separates people from God, and the only way to “pay” for sin was through blood sacrifice
  • 3 ^ sole: the only one
  • 3 ^ sum: an amount of money
  • 3 support group: a group of people who meet to help each other with a particular problem
  • 3 ^ * trend: the way a situation is developing or changing; a general tendency
  • 3 vigils: periods of time, especially during the night, when you stay awake in order to pray
  • 3 ^ * voluntary (volunteer): by choice; because you want to (adj); without being paid
  • (We looked at chapters 4 & 5 in the fall)
  • 6 ^ * culture: ideas, beliefs, and customs of a group of people
  • 6 ^ ** to acquire: to get something, such as by buying, reading, or being near it
  • 6 ^ * administrative: relating to activities involved in managing a company or institution
  • 6 ^ aid: help or advice given to someone who needs it
  • 6 ^ * alternative: something you can choose instead of something else
  • 6 ^ ** aware: realizing that a problem exists; understanding what is happening
  • 6 ^ ** benefit: something that gives advantages or improves life in some way
  • 6 ^ ** capable: having the skills needed to do something
  • 6 * CEO: Chief Executive Officer (the head of a large company)
  • 6 ^ * contrast: a difference between things that are compared
  • 6 ^ * corporate: belonging to or relating to a company (e.g., corporate headquarters, corporate communications, corporate America)
  • 6 ^ corporations: big companies
  • 6 * creative: producing or using new ideas
  • 6 ^ cycle: events that happen again and again
  • 6 ^ * decline = decrease (in quality, importance, numbers, etc.)
  • 6 ^ * discrimination: the practice of treating a person or a group differently in an unfair way
  • 6 ** to downsize: to make a workforce smaller, esp. to save money
  • 6 energy: the physical and mental strength that makes you able to be active
  • 6 ^ ** enormous: extremely large in size or amount
  • 6 ** to ensure = to guarantee; to make certain something will happen properly
  • 6 entrepreneur: a person who makes the plans for a business and gets it going
  • 6 ^ ** financial: relating to money
  • 6 * flaw: imperfection; mistake, mark, or defect (often, that cause problems or weakness)
  • 6 ^ * flexible: can be changed easily to suit any new situation
  • 6 to flourish: to be successful and healthy (e.g., in business); to do well
  • 6 ^ to generate: to produce or create (often a large amount of sth that is not countable, such as trash or electricity)
  • 6 ^ ** global = international; relating to the whole world
  • 6 ^ ** to guarantee: to legally promise that something will be done, fixed, or will otherwise happen
  • 6 ^ * to innovate: to introduce a new/creative idea, invention, or way of doing sth
  • 6 ^ innovation: a new/creative idea, invention, or way of doing sth
  • 6 ^ instance: one time (out of many) when sth happens
  • 6 to launch: to start or reveal something new, expecting big results (e.g., a career, new product, activity, plan, or profession)
  • 6 ^ * to link: to connect
  • 6 microcosm: a small group or society that has the same qualities as a much larger one
  • 6 * outsource: to hire employees in another country instead of using workers where the business is located
  • 6 ^ overall: considering everything; generally
  • 6 ^ policy: principle, procedure, or official way of doing something
  • 6 ^ * to publish: to make information/music/stories available for others to read
  • 6 regulation: an official rule or order
  • 6 ^ * to reinforce: to give strength or support to (a building, idea, opinion, etc)
  • 6 ^ ** to rely on = to depend on
  • 6 ^ ** revolution: time when people change a political system by mass demonstrations, war, or other force
  • 6 * sacrifice: to give up sth valuable for the sake of sth more valuable
  • 6 ^ ** source: place of origin
  • 6 ^ ** status: social or professional rank or position in relation to others
  • 6 ^ style: a particular way of doing something
  • 6 ^ to submit: to agree to obey; to give sth in a formal way (e.g., to submit a contract for evaluation)
  • 6 * subtle: indirect or clever; not obvious or offensive, but you can see/understand it if you pay careful attention
  • 6 swiftest: the quickest and fastest
  • 6 team: a group of people who play a game or sport together
  • 6 ^ * temporary: not permanent; lasting only a short time
  • 6 ^ ** theme: main subjects or ideas in a piece of writing, speech, or movie
  • 6 ^ theoretically: supposedly true
  • 6 ^ * theory: an unproven idea that is supposed to explain sth about life, the world, etc. (“This theory explains many things, but sometimes leads to false conclusions.”)
  • 6 ^ * ultimate: most important (because it is the biggest, final, highest, most difficult, etc.)
  • 6 venture capital: money that is lent to people so that they can start a new business
  • 6 wielding: having a lot (of power or influence) and being ready to use it
  • 7 to abuse: to deliberately use power or authority for the wrong purpose
  • 7 to adjourn: to stop meeting for a short time
  • 7 ** area: a particular part of a country or city; a particular subject or range of activities
  • 7 ^ * to assume: to believe sth without proof (“Of course I assume that you are telling the truth.” “When I send email, I assume that it will get there.”)
  • 7 * assumption: a belief (that you think is true) used as the basis for understanding other things; what you want to believe (about life, relationships, fate, etc.)
  • 7 ^ ** to conclude: to decide, based on convincing information; to successfully finish
  • 7 ^ consent: permission to do something
  • 7 ^ depression (economic): a time when there is not much business activity and many people have no jobs
  • 7 ^ ** to enable: to make it possible for sth to happen
  • 7 ^ * focus = emphasis
  • 7 hardcore: having an extremely strong belief or opinion that is unlikely to change
  • 7 ^ * to illustrate: to make the meaning of something clearer by giving examples
  • 7 ^ illustration: example that shows the truth very clearly
  • 7 ^ ** impact = effect, esp the strong effect sth has on sth else
  • 7 ^ to injure: to hurt yourself or someone else (often passive: He was injured when something fell on him.)
  • 7 ^ * injuring = hurting
  • 7 ^ * to interpret = to explain
  • 7 intolerable: too difficult, bad, or annoying to accept or deal with
  • 7 * to lobby: to try to influence the government or someone with political power so that they make laws favorable to you
  • 7 ^ * margin = difference (in number of votes)
  • 7 ^ military: relating to or used by the army, navy, etc
  • 7 ^ * outcome = result
  • 7 ^ period: the punctuation mark at the end of an English sentence; an interval of time
  • 7 to persist: to continue doing something, even though it is difficult
  • 7 plurality: (technical) more votes than any other (person/issue), but less than all others put together
  • 7 ^ previous: happening or existing before now
  • 7 ^ * principle: an important, foundational reason
  • 7 ^ * procedure = method
  • 7 ** pursuit: a determined action to achieve or get sth (pursuits can also refer to one’s hobbies)
  • 7 ^ ** to regulate = to control (esp. by rules or laws)
  • 7 ^ to resolve: to make a definite, unchangeable decision after much thought (“Tom resolved to stop smoking after his surgery.”)
  • 7 ^ * to restrain: to prevent someone from doing something
  • 7 ^ series: events that are related and have a particular result
  • 7 ^ * specific = particular; something particular the reader/listener knows about; not general
  • 7 to stagger: to do sth in an irregular way; to arrange (work hours, political terms, vacations, etc.) so that they begin and end at different times (e.g., one person works from 9-5 while another works from 12-8)
  • 7 stance: opinions that are stated publicly
  • 7 ^ strategy: a planned series of actions for achieving something
  • 7 ^ * to target: to aim an idea or plan at a limited group of people
  • 7 ^ ** widespread: existing or happening in many places or situations
  • (We looked at chapters 8 & 9 in the fall)
  • 10 attention span: the amount of time that you are able to carefully listen to or watch sth that is happening
  • 10 ^ to bond: to develop a special relationship (as a father with his son, or among teammates)
  • 10 ^ comment: an opinion that you express
  • 10 ^ * committed: willing to work very hard at something
  • 10 to console: to make someone feel better when they are feeling sad or disappointed
  • 10 * contract: a legal written agreement, showing the responsibilities of those who have signed it
  • 10 ^ contrary: in an opposite way
  • 10 ^ * to derive: to get or produce from something
  • 10 ^ elements: parts or features of a whole system
  • 10 ^ equipment: special things needed for a sport, job, task, etc.
  • 10 ^ to evolve: to develop by gradually changing
  • 10 ^ * explicit: clear, direct
  • 10 ^ exposed: shown, revealed, or faced with
  • 10 * handicrafts: skills needing careful use of your hands, such as sewing or making baskets
  • 10 ^ ** to illustrate: to make the meaning of something clearer by giving examples
  • 10 ^ ** image: the way others see you; sth that intentionally looks like sth else (e.g., the face on a coin)
  • 10 * ingrained: attitudes or behavior that are firmly established and therefore difficult to change
  • 10 injury: a wound to your body caused by accident or attack
  • 10 ^ intense: very strong
  • 10 ^ * to involve: to include as a necessary part; to actively do (sth)
  • 10 ^ involving: including something as a necessary part
  • 10 ^ * item: a single thing in a set, group, or list
  • 10 ^ * to label: to attach information (e.g., a price, the item’s brand name, the name of a disease or problem)
  • 10 ^ * lecture: a long educational talk given to a group
  • 10 ^ likewise: in the same way
  • 10 ^ * mental: affecting the mind
  • 10 ^ to monitor: to watch carefully
  • 10 notorious: famous or well-known for something bad
  • 10 obsessed: thinking about sb or sth so much that you think unclearly about other things
  • 10 overindulgence: the habit of eating or drinking too much
  • 10 ^ overseas: in a foreign country (esp. if across the ocean)
  • 10 performance-enhancing drugs drugs such as steroids that some athletes use illegally to improve their strength or endurance
  • 10 * portions: the amount of food for one person, especially when served in a restaurant
  • 10 ^ ** principal = main (i.e., most important)
  • 10 ^ project: a carefully planned work
  • 10 * proliferation: a rapid increase in the amount or number of something
  • 10 ^ psychological: relating to the way people’s minds work
  • 10 ^ range: different things of the same general type
  • 10 ^ ** to relax: to rest (loosen muscles, become calm) after doing something intense or demanding; “After work, I like to relax by listening to music.”
  • 10 sedentary: doing or requiring much sitting
  • 10 * slender: thin, graceful, and attractive
  • 10 symbol: something that represents an idea
  • 10 ^ ** uniform: the same; a standardized set of clothes for fellow students, police officers, soldiers, etc.
  • 10 ^ * via: using a person or machine to send something
  • 10 * vitality: great energy and cheerfulness, and the ability to continue working effectively
  • 10 * walkie-talkie: battery-operated, two way radio telephone
  • 11 ** to accommodate: to acknowledge and allow (e.g., a different opinion, a new team member, an unpopular change/need)
  • 11 ^ approximate: nearly exact; slightly more or less in number or quantity
  • 11 * benefits: advantages that you get from your job (e.g., insurance, discounts, use of a company car)
  • 11 ^ to compensate: to bring balance or equilibrium (such as to pay the owner when a house is torn down by the government)
  • 11 conscientious: showing a lot of care and attention
  • 11 ^ * to consist: to be made of a number of things
  • 11 * contradictory: statements, beliefs, rules, etc, that cannot all be true (they are in opposition to each other)
  • 11 controversial: causing a lot of disagreement
  • 11 counselors: people whose job is to help, advise and support people with special needs or problems
  • 11 ^ couple: a pair (of lovers); a small number (of things, people, etc)
  • 11 courtship: the period of time during which a man and a woman have a romantic relationship before getting married
  • 11 * demographic: related to a part of the population that is considered as a group
  • 11 ** dramatic: exciting and impressive (and perhaps somewhat mysterious)
  • 11 ^ ** emphasis: additional importance
  • 11 exhausting making someone very tired
  • 11 ^ ** expert: someone who has special skill or knowledge
  • 11 ^ ** factor: one of several things that influence or cause a result
  • 11 ^ ** final = last (in a series)
  • 11 ^ * flexible: can be changed easily to suit any new situation
  • 11 ^ ** generation: people of the same age, or the period of time between someone’s birth and the birth of his/her children (three generations would include you, your father, and your grandfather)
  • 11 ^ * institutions: large organizations, especially ones dedicated to public service; (when singular, “institution” can also refer to an established social system)
  • 11 irreconcilable differences: strong disagreements between two people who are married (given as a legal reason for getting a divorce)
  • 11 to juggle: to try to keep three balls in the air at once; to try to fit two or more jobs or activities into your life
  • 11 ^ * labor: hard work; work using physical effort
  • 11 ^ ** license: an official document that gives you permission to do sth (drive a car, marry, etc)
  • 11 ^ * to locate = to find
  • 11 * maternity leave: a period of time that a woman is allowed to be away from work to have a baby
  • 11 to nurture: to feed and take care of (a child, plant, etc) while it is growing
  • 11 * obedient: always doing what you are told to do by your parents or sb in authority
  • 11 ^ ** to obtain = to get (as a result of effort)
  • 11 ^ * partner: mate; two people (or companies) who cooperate in a task/business/marriage/etc
  • 11 paternity: of or related to being a father (paternity leave/law suit/blood test)
  • 11 ^ ** policy: principle, procedure, or official way of doing something
  • 11 ^ ** potential: likely to develop in a certain/clear way
  • 11 ^ previous: happening or existing before now
  • 11 ^ primary: most important or earliest
  • 11 ^ * priority: the thing that you think is most important and that needs attention before anything else
  • 11 resentful: feeling angry and upset about something that you think is unfair
  • 11 restriction: a rule that limits or controls
  • 11 ^ ** role = part (that someone plays)
  • 11 ^ stable: steady or consistent, and therefore strong; not likely or prone to change much (“a stable chair/environment”, “a stable marriage/person”)
  • 11 structures: things arranged in a definite pattern of organization
  • 11 ^ ** trend: the way a situation is developing or changing; a general tendency
  • 11 to vanish: to disappear suddenly, especially in a way that cannot easily be explained; to suddenly stop existing
  • 12 ^ ** adequate: well enough for a particular purpose
  • 12 ^ analyst: a person who makes a careful examination of events to make judgements
  • 12 anarchy: a situation in which there is no effective government in a country or no order in an organization or situation
  • 12 * bankruptcy: inability to pay your debts
  • 12 to bash (sth/sb): to criticize someone or something a lot
  • 12 ^ on behalf (of): as their representative
  • 12 ^ ** category: group of things that all have the same qualities
  • 12 ^ ** challenge: sth that tests strength, skill, or ability; sth difficult to accomplish or win
  • 12 commitment: a promise to do something or behave in a particular way
  • 12 * cuisine: a particular style of cooking
  • 12 ^ ** to define: to describe accurately; to talk about the limits or qualities that make sth different
  • 12 to diagnose: to recognize a problem by signs and symptoms
  • 12 * discretionary income: money you can spend in any way you want
  • 12 distinction: a clear difference between things
  • 12 emergency: a dangerous situation that you must deal with immediately
  • 12 * evidence: facts, objects, or signs that make you belive something is true
  • 12 ** identity: the qualities a group of people have that make them different from other people
  • 12 ^ * ideology: a set of ideas on which a political or morality system is based
  • 12 to impeach: to formally accuse a government official of a serious crime in a special government court
  • 12 in-state tuition benefits: greatly reduced tuition costs charged to residents attending a state university operated in their state
  • 12 * internal = inside
  • 12 ^ internalized: to have become part of your character (e.g., a belief or attitude)
  • 12 ^ * to isolate: to keep sth/sb away and/or separate (“We need to isolate this illness to protect other patients.”)
  • 12 ^ isolationism: a belief that your country should not be involved in the affairs of other countries
  • 12 * layoff: stopping a worker’s employment because there is not enough work
  • 12 ^ ** military: relating to or used by the army, navy, etc
  • 12 ^ ** normal = usual; commonly used
  • 12 ^ * parallel = similar
  • 12 * paycheck: one’s salary, or particularly the paper sb takes to the bank to get money after working for a week or month
  • 12 ^ to pose (a threat): to suggest or have the potential to (cause a problem, danger, or difficulty)
  • 12 ^ reassign: to take sth from one person or group, and give it to someone else (e.g., a job or task)
  • 12 ^ to register: to record sth (e.g., name and address) in an official way, often to say you want to take part in an opportunity (“If you register for the trip today, you’ll get a discount.” “Today is the last day to register to vote in the next election.”
  • 12 ^ * registered = recorded (in some official way, such as at the post office or in a government office)
  • 12 ^ reluctance: (reluctant) slow and unwilling
  • 12 ^ ** to respond: to reply or react to sth said or done
  • 12 ^ ** to reveal: to show sth that was hidden
  • 12 to sap (sapping): to gradually take away something, such as strength or energy
  • 12 ^ ** sector: part, area or segment (esp business or trade)
  • 12 security: things done to keep a place, person,or thing safe
  • 12 sensibilities: ways that people react to particular subjects or types of behavior
  • 12 * skeptical = doubtful; having doubts about whether something is true, right, or good
  • 12 ^ ** sole: the only one
  • 12 ^ ** stress: mental, emotional or physical strain/tension (often about your work or personal life)
  • 12 ^ ** to survive: to continue (to live) in spite of difficulties
  • 12 ^ ** to target: to aim an idea or plan at a limited group of people
  • 12 ^ to undertake: to start or agree to do something

Traveling without Seeing article

  • trove: valuable objects or treasure, esp. if hidden in some way (“a pirate’s treasure trove”)
  • *“tried and true”: things you know to be reliable or dependable from experience
  • *to insulate: to protect from heat or electricity; to keep someone apart from unpleasant experiences
  • to be haunted by: to have this idea/memory linger (stay) in your mind in an unpleasant way
  • cocoon: the silk cover around insects while they change into butterflies (茧); something that completely wraps around you for personal protection
  • *chain (of shops/etc): a number of businesses under one manager or owner (e.g., all Nokia shops or all KFC restaurants)
  • *manage to (do sth): an informal way to say that you do something that is not easy to do (“It is a rare medicine, but I’ve managed to find some.”)
  • *refuge: a place of protection (from rain, snow, thieves, foreign soldiers, etc.)
  • to tote: (generally a negative term) to carry sth regularly (“Kids have to tote heavy books and backpacks all day.”)
  • *to coddle: to be overprotective, treating sb very gently to protect them from pain or difficulty.
  • to tuck into: to make a child comfortable in bed
  • *aesthetic=beautiful (formal; esp in relation to the study of beauty)
  • clique: (negative) a small group of like-minded people who do not want others to join their group
  • *partisan: (negative) strongly supporting one idea/side/faction without listening to other choices
  • *irony: humorous or strange because one would expect the opposite to be true Example of irony: “An unknown author once said that if you simply write a wise saying then your name will live forever.”
  • *to prod=to push; to use pain to get an animal to move or do something
  • *to linger: to stay somewhere or be noticeable for too long (“The smoke lingered long after the smoker left the elevator.”)
  • sweet spot: a pleasant, comfortable or effective place (“The ball hit the sweet spot on his foot and then soared into the goal.” “The masseuse found his sweet spot and soon his tension melted away.”)
  • to traverse: to move across a large area of land or water
  • *redundant: not necessary because something else does the same thing
  • to be stuck in a rut: living/working in a boring way that doesn’t change (like carts follow previous carts because of the track they leave behind in soft ground)
  • to spin your wheels: to keep using effort but without result, like a car whose wheels spin on ice.
  • *serendipity: when interesting or valuable discoveries are made by accident
  • *skyline: the shape made by buildings against the sky (sort of the “fingerprint” of a city)

Don’t forget to study vocabulary from the films we watched.

 


©2014 Michael Krigline. See our Website Standards and Use Policy.

Monthly English Corner & Weekly Quote

  • June English Corner

    Here’s a tip to help improve your reading comprehension. When reading an article or chapter in a book, first read the first and last paragraphs. Then go to each of the subsequent paragraphs and just read the first sentence. Then skim or read quickly through the entire article. This will help you to get ahold of the main ideas and thereby greatly improve your comprehension. Understand the main idea; when reading, it is not necessary to understand all of the new vocabulary words. When many internationals read, they translate every word they don’t understand in a passage. This is known as the Grammar/Translation method and it’s an ineffective way of learning which takes far too much time. Try out the reading method I’ve just described, and I’ll see you next time at the English Corner.  © Mark Peter, M.A. Used with permission.


    Mr. Peter was my colleague at the Agape English Language Institute of Limestone College (Columbia, SC). After teaching ESL to recent immigrants and long-term visitors in the SC Public School System for several years, he returned to China (teaching English in Ningxia). Mark is currently teaching back in the US.
  • Jun 20

    “Our greatest natural resource is the minds of our children.”
    –Walt Disney (1901 – 1966; creator of Mickey Mouse, and the Disney entertainment industry)


    Note: A quote’s original source is not always known, and authenticity has not been verified. To find out about an author, type the name into a search engine (like Google or Baidu). One of my favorite websites for quotations is: www.brainyquote.com/     44

About EFLsuccess.com

All content ©2017 Michael Krigline unless otherwise noted. Most EFLsuccess.com materials can be considered “fair use” educational resources, available for class if used in accordance with our Website Standards and Use Policy (under "About Us"), which also talks about attribution and the use of cookies.

I searched numerous web hosts before I decided to go with WebHostingHub.com. They help establish and manage my domain names, have advanced server equipment, multiple email addresses, great customer service, and more. Click the ad/link below to get more information!

EFLsuccess chose WebHostingHub.com as our server — Click to see why!

© EFLsuccess.com. Look under "About us" for contact info and our Use Policy. For more resources visit Krigline.com and www.krigline.com.cn. Frontier Theme