Standards & Use Policy

By using this site, you agree to the Standards and Use Policy outlined on this page.

Can others use materials from this site?

The short answer is yes; website visitors may copy and use materials without the copyright owner’s specific permission, if the work is labeled: “from” or “adapted from,” and the copy is used for educational, not-for-profit purposes. Please see the details below.

Sorry that Chinese translations of our materials are not available, but site visitors are welcome to create their own Chinese versions of these materials. 抱歉的是,我们的材料还没有汉语翻译,但欢迎网站访问者对这些材料创建自己的汉语版本。

Is everything “free” at

Yes, but…  I’m very grateful to the many Netizens who keep my costs low by offering free software like WordPress and Filezilla, creating the free Frontier/WP template EFLsuccess uses, posting news and definitions for free (see below) and what not, so I also choose not to charge for anything posted at or (this could change at any time). But if you want to help with the costs of maintaining this site, and encourage me to keep adding to it…

Here’s a way to make a donation to us (“Krigline Enterprises”) via Paypal or credit card.

This donation button is here for your convenience (you can enter any amount); you receive no goods or services for your donation,
and donations are not tax-deductible according to US tax laws.

Thanks for using and supporting!


Policy for the use of materials & photos available at and

To whatever extent we hold the copyrights to materials posted at, or, site visitors are free to use (including printing or downloading) those materials for non-commercial, personal use without charge/royalties, but please include the source on any printouts/copies (e.g., “from”). Citing sources that we cite is particularly important! If you write to me, I may be able to send you a larger copy of the photos, too (these are “shrunk” to 72 dpi).

Without obtaining additional permission from us, non-profit organizations, churches, schools and educators are welcome to use and/or adapt our materials/songs for their own use, including recording and distributing materials locally or making multiple copies for class use. Before distributing our materials beyond a local church or classroom, please write to us for permission. (We would also appreciate hearing when our materials are helpful, especially if they are recorded or copied.)

To print our original material (e.g., a photo or article from in book form or to post it on a different website, written permission is required from Michael Krigline (see addresses on the “About Us” page). We do not and cannot give others permission to use anything created by (and copyright of) someone else. Other webmasters are welcome to create links to the content of or (we would like to know about this, but it is not mandatory).

All materials are ©2015 Michael Krigline, some rights reserved, unless otherwise noted. I’ve tried several times to read and understand the idea of a CC (Creative Commons) license, but I always give up due to their complicated explanations. But I think my position is similar to “CC BY-NC-SA 4.0,” with the possible exception that I reserve the right to publish my materials later in printed form, at which point they might disappear from my websites.

Fair Use and Intellectual Property rights

Unless otherwise specified, the articles/resources on this website have been created for our students under our understanding of “fair use” for educational resources (US Copyright Act of 1976, 17 U.S.C. § 107; see If we have inadvertently used copyright materials on this web site (that is, anything owned by someone else), such materials were probably obtained in an area of the public domain (or in our own files), and have been used here for informative and educational purposes only. We respect the intellectual property rights of others; in accordance with the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, we will respond as quickly as possible to notices of alleged infringement that are reported to us (see addresses on the “About Us” page; and be as specific as possible about where the copyright image is located on my sites–thanks!). Any authenticated request from the copyright owner to remove this material or to add source information will be honored immediately. The copyright remains that of the owner except where stated otherwise.The use or citation of materials on this personal website does not constitute an endorsement by the original author or publisher.

Credit to some helpful resources

I have created the definitions used on this website, but often after consulting one or more dictionaries. I highly recommend the following reference materials (which I often use) to anyone trying to learn English:

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 3rd ed. Essex: Longman Group, Ltd. (Pearson Education), 1995 [Summers, Della, Director]. (Great dictionary for non-native speakers; it’s no coincidence that my definitions often sound a lot like the ones in this reference resource! Longman Dictionary is also available as software, and it is available in China. I highly recommend this helpful tool. You can also use this dictionary for free on line; it is linked to my Links for Learners page.)

The Free Dictionary by Farlex ( You can read about it on their page, but trust me–it’s a great tool! This is also linked to my Links for Learners page.

Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2004. (Software) USA: Microsoft Corporation, ©1993-2003. (Back when this software worked–before Windows 7–it was nice to have a good dictionary/thesaurus inside my computer when writing. I often consulted this software when composing definitions.)

My textbook: Successful Writing for the Real World

Definitions and other things posted at have sometimes been adapted or copied from my textbook, a great resource for advanced English-learners who want their written English to be successful! This book is published in China: Successful Writing for the Real World, by DeWitt Scott and Michael Krigline, 2008; Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 外语教学与研究出版社; ISBN: 978-7-5600-7264-7; Chinese title: 高级实用英语写作;

Privacy and additional issues 

First, and are both hosted in the USA (with WebHostingHub, as of late 2013).

Relationship between and In 2013, I created, mainly copying educational materials from my old website (established 1999, with a mirror site added in about 2005: Until this “transfer” is complete, there will be a lot of overlap, but eventually I intend that will be “educational” and will be “personal/inspirational.” If anyone cares, this transformation was needed due to three big problems: (1) had lots of technical difficulties, probably because (2) I created/maintained it with Microsoft FrontPage 2002 software, and (3) I live in China. When transferring things to, I’m trying to “clear formatting” but I’m sure there are plenty of  “operator mistakes” made by this workaholic consultant/teacher who also likes to provide English-learners and teachers with free resources.

Regarding “living in China”, I registered a sister website ( with Chinese authorities in 2005, and bought space on a Chinese server. This helped students/friends in China to reach/load content much quicker, until late 2012 when my registration was canceled (I was told it was simply because I was a foreigner). Students and friends worked hard–spending extra time and money–to get me back on line, but the upload connection isn’t as reliable as it used to be, and I think there are more firewalls between my Chinese viewers and the content. And sometimes, I still can’t reach at all. Of course, there’s nothing I can do about this!

China has stricter laws regarding Internet content than the US, and we do our best to comply with those laws. For example, it is never our intention to “make China look bad” (which is illegal in China)–we love living and working here! Examples and photos from China are here to help those in other countries understand this country better. If any Chinese person sees something on that should not be published in China, please notify us (in English) and we will look into it as soon as possible.

“Capital letter fix”: One oddity is that (around 2010) file names at that included capital letters stopped working if the visitor typed a lower-case letter. Thus, I changed all “page names” to lower-case letters, but I kept finding internal links that still (wrongly) used capital letters. Hopefully that won’t happen at, but one never knows. So, if an internal link doesn’t work, be sure all the letters are lower case–this often solves the problem.

Links, materials, articles, cookies, ads, etc., provided by this website are presented here without warranty of any kind. We don’t know of anything harmful, but (as with everything on the Internet) click, read, visit or download at your own risk. I do not intentionally give visitors “cookies” but I suspect that WordPress, FrontPage, WebHostingHub, Filezilla, GoogleAds or others do give “cookies”–again, you visit at your own risk, and by visiting you choose to allow those things.

The link on the bottom of my pages (to WebHostingHub) is an “affiliate link” (and others may be added at any time). This means that I would be rewarded if you follow the link and purchase something there (just like ads). I enter this type of “affiliate” agreement only for products/service I use, and thus recommend as valuable to my friends/visitors. (I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: “Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.) However, I have very little control over the ads that appear on my site.

Regarding errors and other problems. I live and work in a developing country (definitely “low income”!), I’m not a web master! It is getting harder and harder to find time to work on my websites, but I think there are many valuable things here for those who can reach them. So, please be patient with my website’s problems, feel free to write to me about any you find (see addresses on the “About Us” page), AND sorry for the inconvenience!

Privacy policy

I don’t do anything to record addresses or information about my visitors (I don’t even know how). But the web-hosting services may collect this information, and Google AdSense ads could be posted by third parties who likely place and read cookies on my visitors’ browsers, or using web beacons to collect information as a result of ads at or, etc. By choosing to view this website’s pages, you are allowing such things.

This graphic tells you how to write to me. sinousa_mail11

©2015 Michael Krigline. See our Website Standards and Use Policy.


All content ©2018 Michael Krigline unless otherwise noted. Most materials can be considered “fair use” educational resources, available for class if used in accordance with our Website Standards and Use Policy (under “About Us”), which also talks about attribution and the use of cookies.

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