©Michael Krigline, MA (2007), EFLsuccess.com⇔
An introduction to one of the most popular symbols of Christmas⇔
Santa Claus is not so much a person as he is an idea, but this idea started with a real person many centuries ago. Around the world, “Santa” has many names: Santa Claus, Sinter Claas, Saint Nicholas, St Nick, Kriss Kringle, Father Christmas, 圣诞老人 (literally: holy birth old person) and many more. But the first “Santa” lived in the 4th century; he was a Christian leader named Nicholas, living in what we now call Turkey. After his wealthy parents died, he spent his life secretly doing good things for others, especially children, the poor, and sailors. He was later honored with the Christian title “Saint,” and thus became St. Nicholas.
Like many governments before and since, the leaders of the Roman Empire considered Christianity to be a threat, so St. Nicholas and other Christian leaders also spent many years in jail because of their deeply-held faith.
One of the most famous stories of Nicholas’s generosity is about a poor man who needed a dowry for each of his daughters. When it came time for the oldest daughter to marry, Nicholas dropped gold coins down the poor father’s chimney, and they landed in the daughter’s socks (which were hanging by the fire to dry). Everyone thought it was a miracle. Money also mysteriously appeared the night before the next daughter was to marry. When it came time for his youngest daughter to marry, the poor man stayed up all night and discovered that the gifts had come from Nicholas.
By the time he died, Nicholas was so well known for secretly supplying needs that people were giving him credit for every unexpected gift. Later, his kindness was remembered with “the Feast of St. Nicholas” in early December, which eventually moved to Christmas Eve.
As Christianity spread from culture to culture, the man’s name was translated differently. In Holland it is “Sinter Claas,” which became “Santa Claus” (or just “Santa” or “St. Nick”) in America.
In each country, the character is a bit different. In Holland he has a tall red hat and uses a white horse; in the UK, “Father Christmas” is tall and slender; in Russia, “Grandfather Frost” has a red suit and white beard; in Germany, “Pelze Nicol” or “Kris Kringle” may wear fur or bells and arrive by mule or horse; in Sweden, “Jultomten” is a short elf (with a red tasseled cap and a long white beard) who rides a goat. In other countries, children say gifts come from the “three wise men” or some other character. Countries where the celebration of Christmas is relatively new (such as China and Japan) have adopted the American Santa Claus.
Who created America’s version of Santa? In the 18th century, Major Henry Livingston Jr. (1748-1828) wrote a poem giving a new magical dimension to the character of St. Nicholas. Livingston invented a flying sleigh, magic reindeer (and he gave them names!), and more. This poem was originally called “Account of a Visit from St. Nicholas”; it was later published citing Clement Clarke Moore as the author. Cartoonist Thomas Nast drew pictures based on the description in this poem, and both the pictures and the poem became very popular. Livingston’s poem, Nast’s cartoons, and popular Coca-cola ads (created by Haddon Sundblom from 1931 to 1964) turned “St. Nicholas” into the “jolly fat man” Americans now celebrate as “Santa Claus.”
Wherever he is remembered, and no matter how you picture this jolly gift-giver, “Santa” has come to symbolize generosity at Christmastime all over the world.
(underlined words are vocabulary terms; *key terms)
- *4th century: AD 300-399
- chimney: a pipe or brick tunnel through which smoke leaves a building (particularly over an open fire or hearth)
- dowry: a gift of money or other possessions, given by a bride’s parents to the new husband’s parents
- elf: an imaginary and magical “person,” usually small with pointed ears
- Holland: a European country (officially called the Netherlands) known for its windmills; people from here are called Dutch, and many Dutch people helped to settle America (“New York was originally named after a city in Holland: New Amsterdam.”)
- *jail: a place where governments put people to either punish them or to keep their ideas from influencing society
- *the poor: all poor people, considered as a group
- reindeer: a large, fast animal with antlers (horns), that lives in extreme north, cold places
- *sailors: people who work on ships (throughout history, this has been a difficult yet important job)
- sleigh: a vehicle used in the snow, pulled by one or more horses or other strong, fast animals
- tasseled: decorated with a small ball at the tip, often made of fur or white threads
- *a threat: something that is regarded as a possible source of danger or instability
- three wise men: part of the Christmas story, which says that “wise men from the east” saw a new star proclaiming that a king had been born in Israel; they followed the star and found Jesus, and then gave him precious gifts (gold, incense) to show their respect and worship.
- Turkey: a country on the Mediterranean sea, considered part of Asia and Europe. It was an important part of the Roman Empire, then it was a main center for Christianity, and later the center of the Islamic Ottoman Empire. (You can see photos here.)